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Atmospheric
emissions

We continue making effort to minimize the emissions into the atmosphere. The design of improvements to facilities, processes and management systems and investment in new technologies are all measures that are making our goal of minimising environmental impactin the areas in which we operate into a reality.

More information on emissions reduction programs and other actions emissions to the atmosphere at casosdeestudio. repsol.com

Our main air emissions to air are greenhouse gases77 , sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and, to a lesser extent, carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter.

Emissions of SO2 and NOx are for the most part generated in combustion processes within our refineries and exploration and production activities. In addition, there are fugitive emissions of methane and NMVOCs mainly in refining, in crude oil and gas extraction operations, in storage terminals, and in service stations during the handling of gasoline.

In 2011, our emissions of SO2 went down by 10% compared to the previous year as a result of improved fuel quality and a lower concentration of sulfur in refining. Emissions of NOx and NMVOCs dropped 12% and 10%, respectively, mainly due to reduced activity in exploration and production operations in Argentina, caused by union conflicts in Santa Cruz (Argentina).

In addition, emissions of NMVOCs were also reduced due to improvements in LPG facilities in Spain and use of a revised, more accurate calculation methodology.

During 2011, the main emissions into the atmosphere (SO2, NOx and NMVOC) decreased 10%.

Trends in S02, NOx, and NMVOC emissions. S02,NOx and NMVOC by activity

(77) Information on our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions may be found in the Chapter on "Encouraging a low carbon strategy"